Carlos and I occasionally hunt together; he is a pheasant/grouse/duck fanatic and is generally obsessed with gathering wild meats. When he sees a deer or antelope or elk I can almost see the little cartoon bubbles floating up from his head with images of steaming roasts and other dishes. His regular hunting partners are named Teal and Lola; Teal is a Pointing Griffon, and Lola is an accident, a mix of Pointing Griffon and a German Wirehair that turns out to be a great bird dog.
Carlos and I made sausages and chorizo last Sunday at his house. I took a fresh loaf of no-knead bread, a bottle of Rioja and 7 pounds of elk meat. Carlos provided a large pork shoulder, back fat, spices and the fermentation agent and nitrites for the salami. While we stuffed sausages, Martha cooked us a nice linguine with shrimp and truffle oil. It certainly is more fun to undertake a sausage making project with a friend, good food and a bottle of wine (a Rioja). We made a spicy Italian sausage and a Merguez using a mixture of elk and pork. The recipes were adapted from Michael Ruhlman and Brian Polcyn's book Charcuterie
I should have paid more attention to recipes, ratios and ingredients but that's part of the pleasure of working in someone else's kitchen, you're not in charge. You can just relax and do what you're told. As I recall, and I know that we didn't write it down anywhere but maybe Carlos remembers, we made the Merguez following the recipe except that we substituted elk for the lamb. The Italian sausage was a mixture of about 2/3 elk and 1/3 pork. The chorizo, which is cured with nitrites and salt and fermented salami is not cooked but aged for a couple of months and we made it following the recipe in Ruhlman.
This the first attempt for either of us making a dry aged fermented salami. Carlos is a real scientist, he labels himself a physiological ecologist, so I was quite content to following his lead on this somewhat more technical form of charcuterie. In my incomplete understanding, you add sodium nitrite as a preservative to prevent the growth of botulism and add a fermenting agent to get the curing process going. I don't own a copy of the Ruhlman book and now I can not recall if is it sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate or possibly a mixture of both. I really should have been paying more attention. The Chorizo recipe is one point where I understand the Ruhlman/Polcyn book contains a rather serious typo regarding the amount of fermenting agent to add. There is an explanation buried somewhere here.
On all sausage blogs there are such fine photos of the salamis hanging to cure. They often are hanging on metal racks in white tiled rooms. It turns out to be a more difficult than you might imagine to find a clean, cool, dry place to hang a salami to cure. Carlos put his in the crawlspace under his house, not as bad as it might sound, but still not a white tiled room. I hung mine in the utility room which does stay cool, but which is open to the kitchen. A few days after hanging them I discovered that the dog had uncharacteristically nipped of the bottoms of two of the links; so much for sterile conditions. Matt Wright who writes the Wrigthfood Blog has some really interesting plans for an inexpensive home curing setup.
I used some of the Merguez in a paella and it was great. Haven't tried the finished Italian links yet and we're still waiting for what's left of the chorizo age.
For nose to tail eating in Portland there seems to be two places, there may well be more. Beast is one and Le Pigeon is the other. Beast is within walking distance of Clea and Tom's new house but we could not get a reservation. We did manage to get a reservation at Le Pigeon, the restaurant run by the young chef Gabriel Rucker. We ate there on a Sunday evening and Rucker was not at the stove. There is a counter around the cook area and it is possible to eat there on a walk-in basis. Other seating is at communal tables. Some find this annoying, we shared our table with a another couple and, other than the fact that many remark on it I found the arrangement unremarkable. The table settings are quaintly eclectic with mismatched antique flatware, I especially like the long thin tines more common on older forks. I learned this practice from Cecilia when I was in Scotland and we do at home. Plates were also a mishmosh of random patterns and styles but the wine glasses were of high quality.
Tom ordered the Duck, crepes, chestnuts and Swiss chard. Penelope and Clea had an Endive, goat cheese, boquerones (anchovies) and radish starter and shared an order of the Halibut. My grandson Jasper had a Hamburger, of which they only make five a night. The waitress explained that Rucker does not want Le Pigeon become known as the best burger joint in Portland so they limit their nightly output. We were there reasonably early and so were able to get one, Jasper enthusiastically claimed it was the best hamburger he'd ever eaten.
Having recently made them at home myself I had to have the Pig's feet starter. The Orecchietti, venison heart, rapini and pecorino was very tempting. I also planned to have the sweetbreads. Regarding wine: for Tom and I the hostess suggested and we shared a bottle of Domaine Courbis '05 from Saint Joseph in the Rhône valley. It turned out to be rather unexceptional and really was the only disappointment of the evening. Clea and Penelope shared a demi-bottle of Willamette valley Chardonnay which they enjoyed but which I did not taste.
Pigs Feet, foie gras, cipollini and egg. The basis of the dish was not unlike the pig trotters I made a few weeks ago, a patty of tender meat from the foot. On top of the patty of pig foot was the thinly sliced cipollini (onion). This was topped with a vinaigrette. On top sat a perfectly poached egg. The foie gras was shredded over the top and although there was not much of it it did give distinctive flavor to the entire dish. I thoroughly enjoyed it.
As a main course I had the Sweetbreads, scallop, salsify and citrus. I had never eaten sweetbreads before, though Jim Harrison has raved about them. Come to think about I don't know that I've ever eaten salify before either. Sweetbreads are harvested from lamb and veal cattle and come in two varieties; they are the thymus gland (throat sweetbreads) or the pancreas (stomach sweetbreads.) I assume I had veal , the ones I had were the oval shaped, and larger, the pancreas. To prepare them they are soaked in water for a day and then cleaned and sometimes blanched. Mine sautéed. Salsify is a root vegetable whose tender greens can be used in salads in the spring . The salsify greens were delicately piled on top with some small pieces of orange topped with a citrus sauce from the deglazed pan. The scallop sat to the side. The texture of the sweetbread is firm yet giving. It was excellent, the delicate flavors and textures of the sweetbread and scallop complimented on another beautifully. If I can find them locally I will try cooking them at home.
From the online reviews it seems that people either love or hate the place; the lovers are roughly in a two to one ratio to the haters. Some of the bad reviews obviously came from halfhearted omnivores or even misguided vegetarians not happy with the menu's emphasis on meat and offal. Most complained of the service which, for us, was very good. The hostess was perhaps a bit over enthusiastic but our waitress was there when you wanted her and otherwise left us alone, perfect.
As for me, I think Le Pigeon is great. I like the communal tables, the chefs cooking in the small but open space, the hip young wait staff, the creative menu and well prepared food all add up to something quite special.
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I cooked two other nights while we were in Portland in Clea and Tom's beautiful new kitchen. What a pleasure to cook on a high BTU gas stove, where we live now I cook on a broken electric stove that is only fit for the dump, you could not give it away. One night I made Pork with dates and dried apricots served on some fresh noodles and a salad. The recipe is from Reynaud's book Pork and Sons. I've made this twice now and this recipe alone has made the book worth its cost. The other night I cooked prepared Short ribs in coffee with chilies which we served with french fries and a salad.
The German painter Gerhard Richter has claimed that he painted his Annunciation after Titian because he wanted one. As I recall the story, he had been in Venice studying renaissance paintings and, more or less decided he wanted a Titian for himself and so he painted one. The interpretation of Richter's work causes untold consternation among critics and those who would pigeonhole his motivations. Some propose his work be interpreted as conceptual art rather than on its own terms as painting. The more common motivation in the art world is to create something new, something that hasn't been done before and yet that is in dialog with previous work. If we take Richter at his word, his motivation, for the Annunciation at least, is concrete and simply understood by anyone who would make something for themselves.
Titian, Annunciation to Mary, c.1540
There is a naivety at work (and an audacity too) in looking at a painting in a museum and deciding to make one for yourself. An acquisitive nature underlies such an action: "I want one." But in a time when owning your own tools is more and more a kind of luxury, the idea of "making one for yourself" is a profoundly fundamental and uncomplicated initial motivation. Later, satisfaction with your own work comes into play.
In 1973 when Richter painted his Annunciation, owning a Titian was not a financially feasible option for him, so he made one. This seems to be an aspect of making your own things; for whatever reason, not being able to purchase one. I started cooking, tying my own flies, and working on my own rifles and shotguns for much the same reason. My most recent cooking jag started after we ate in a Tapas restaurant in Portland and I was inspired to make more exotic fare at home. Early on in my own flyfishing I started tying my own flies. In Ithaca I'd caught a number of beautiful (and delicious) landlocked salmon on an olive Matuka pattern. I was convinced the color and size of the fly was perfectly matched to the water I fished. When I lost the last one I discovered I could not find another anywhere. I had to learn to make my own. Guided by similar motivations, I started doing some work on rifles and shotguns.
But why bother? From a strictly functional point of view, from the point of view of what we actually need to live, none of us is required to "make" any thing, except money. And even to make money, fewer and fewer of us actually make anything, at least nothing that we can concretely identity. By "concrete" I think of something that has a unique physical identity; something I could poke myself in the eye with or drop on my toe or burn my tongue on. Money, a bank transaction, a report, this blog these are not concrete in the sense I mean. This absence of making things as part of ordinary everyday life seems to be the core nature of the service economy we have rushed toward with such a vengeance.
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Writing about customizing and restoring motorcycles and motorcycle maintaining has provided a vehicle for discussion of the contrast between the abstract nature of modern work and the concrete nature of building and fixing things.
There seems to be something about motorcycles that inspires this kind of thought. Robert Prisig's classic Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: an inquiry into values addresses quality using concrete examples from motorcycle maintenance. Quality, and this has something to do with handwork, turns out to be a surprisingly hard abstract concept to nail down. I first read Prisig's book, and mostly did not understand it, when I was in my 20's. I reread it a few years ago after buying an old motorcycle that required an inordinate amount of maintenance before I could ride it. I was better prepared to be more critical in my second reading but in rereading it I also realized the effect it had on me. Adrien Litton wrote a nice personal account of the effect Prisig's book had on him the International Journal of Motorcycle Studies titled Finding the Zen in Motorcycling. Litton explains that Prisig's conclusion seemed to be that perception of quality, as a property or judgment about the goodness of a thing, is prior to, or somehow more fundamental than rationality or language. Litton says, and I'd have to say as much, that Pirsig's book framed the way he thinks in significant ways.
Matthew Crawford had an interesting article in the NY Times about a year ago; The Case for Working with Your Hands. Crawford earned a Ph.D. in Political Philosophy from the University of Chicago in 2000 and, for a time anyway, gave up academia to work with his hands. He became a motorcycle mechanic. The Times article came out at about the same time his book was published, Shop Class as Soulcraft: an inquiry into the value of work. Steven Alford has a nice review and discussion of the book (also in the International Journal of Motorcycle Studies.) Quoting Crawford from Alford's review, the book presents “a nested set of arguments on behalf of work that is meaningful because it is genuinely useful. It also explores what we might call the ethics of maintenance and repair." Alford really likes the book, and as a motorcycle studies person I expect he would. The New York Times review by Dwight Gardner is less enthusiastic and matches some of the others that I have read online. I see that after the publication of his book Crawford is back in academia which has to make you wonder if working with your hands for a living is so great for someone like Crawford who has other options. My own copy just arrived and it looks great and I'm looking forward to getting into it.
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Studying the classic texts on gunsmithing leaves me in awe of the craft. Classic American and British rifles and shotguns represent a kind of pinnacle of hand craft. Gunsmithing combines woodwork with metalwork and requires extraordinarily fine tolerances. In a well equipped shop a gunsmith familiar with traditional techniques can fix just about anything; and this is the connection to what Crawford calls the ethics of maintenance and repair. When I think about something not being fixable, I think of a gunsmith who can form a main spring for a boxlock shotgun from scratch. My appreciation for gunsmithing and my aesthetic taste in rifles and shotguns was initially formed by reading Stephen Bodio's excellent book Good Guns Again: A Celebration of Fine Sporting Arms. I highly recommend it to anyone who comes to hunting like I did without a tradition of guns in their own upbringing. It's been fifteen years since I first read it and I do not believe there is anything better.
Checkering on a rifle or shotgun stock would appear to be impossible for a tyro. It was as naive and absurd for me to hope that I could checker my own rifle as it would be for most people to decide they would paint a version of Titian's Annunciation for themselves. But I wanted one for myself and could not bring myself to justify paying someone do it for me. I guess it depends on how hard you want to learn a new skill, how patient you are at leaning new skills and, in the end, how much imperfection you are willing to live with.
For a rifle,the number of lines per inch (LPI) of the checkering often counts a measure of the quality of the rifle itself. More lines per inch takes more time to do and the required work is that much finer. Standard factory checkering is typically 18 LPI and is often pressed by machine. Lines per inch of checkering on fine custom rifles starts at 20 or 22 LPI and can go as high as 36 LPI or more. The quality of the wood determines how many lines per inch is even possible by the finest craftsman, so a very high LPI count is a reflection on both the craftsman and the wood itself. Although it distinguishes a rifle, at some point, adding more lines per inch defeats the functional purpose of the checkering in the first place; to give the shooter a secure grip on the rifle. This kind of over refinement, to the point of foiling the functional integrity of an object, is not uncommon when craft is elevated to art. Many of the best rifles are show pieces, destined for someones gun safe, never to be used as the tools they are, never hunted.
My first checkering effort was on a Ruger No. 1A. The No.1 is a single shot rifle based on a classic British Farquharson falling block action. I have Bodio to thank for my infatuation with Ruger No. 1's. I've owned three. I bought the 1A from a friend who had reshaped the stock but had not checkered it. My checkering job on the Ruger by no means turned out perfectly, but it wasn't bad for a first try either. Perhaps most importantly, I learned some crucial lessons. Every new job presents itself uniquely, but as you begin to master the technique you get better as you go. My second effort was on a pre-64 Winchester model 70 that had been rebarreled for the 35 Whelen cartridge, this is my elk rifle. Among other things I reshaped the 1960's Monte Carlo style stock to a more classic shape, added a Silvers style recoil pad, a metal grip cap and an ebony forend. The reshaping necessitated a recheckering job.
I've talked to Nate Heineke about checkering. His rifle and shotgun work is world class. When he opened shop in Laramie in an old bank building I started hanging out whenever possible. I soon realized he is the ideal gunsmith, I could not have invented him if I'd have wanted to. He describes checkering as the means to create the illusion of straight lines on a curved surface. A good checkering cradle and sharp tools are required. Some well known custom rifle makers were know to have checkered without a cradle, but not many; this is kind of like Lee Wulff tying flies without a tying vise. I did not have a cradle for the Ruger job and bought one used from an old gunsmith and friend Jim who doesn't checker any more. As for work habits, Nate says he does just a bit at a time. He works for a few hours at most on a job and then sets it aside until he is fresh again. Checkering requires concentration and focus. I made my worst mistake checkering the Whelen when I pushed on past the point where I knew I was too tired.
The thing about checkering is that you need to keep at it. The most important thing that I learned from my imperfect job on the Ruger was that you need to push on past small imperfections that, at the time, may seem to be disastrous. Some of the imperfections disappear as the pattern is deepened. Some just get lost in the overall intricacy of the surrounding pattern. In a lot of hand work imperfections make you want to just quit. Like most things, persistence is key.